By Carol G. Asher
Behling, Laura L. “Reification and Resistance: The Rhetoric of Black Womanhood at the Columbian Exposition, 1893.” Women’s Studies in Communication, vol. 25, no. 2.
Cebrzynski, Annie. “Suffrage 2020 Illinois.” Suffrage2020Illinois, 2023, suffrage2020illinois.org/resources/featured-biographies/fannie-barrier-williams/.
Deegan, Mary Jo. The New Women of Color. DeKalb: Northern IL Press, 2002, p. 6.
Deegan, Mary Jo. “Biculturalism, Self Identity and Social Transformation: Fannie Barrier Williams, Biculturalism, and the African American Experience 1887-1926.” 2008, vol. 15, pp. 107-128.
Featured Biographies: Fannie Barrier Williams. Suffrage2020Illinois, n.d., suffrage2020illinois.org/resources/featured-biographies/fannie-barrier-williams/.
Gullett, Gayle. “‘Our Great Opportunity’: Organized Women Advance Women’s Work at the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893.” Illinois Historical Journal, vol. 87, no. 4, 1994, pp. 259–276. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40192854. Accessed 23 Mar. 2023.
Hendricks, Wanda A. Fannie Barrier Williams: Crossing the Borders of Region and Race. DeKalb: University of Illinois Press, 2014, pp. 24-30.
Hendricks, Wanda A. “‘Completely Surrounded by Screens’: A Raced Identity.” Fannie Barrier Williams: Crossing the Borders of Region and Race, http://rrlc.org/winningthevote/biographies/fannie-barrier-williams/.
Logan, Shirley Wilson. We Are Coming: The Persuasive Discourse of Nineteenth-Century Black Women. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1999, pp. 100, 102.
Massa, Ann. “Black Women in the ‘White City.’” Journal of American Studies, vol. 8, no. 3, 1974, pp. 319–337. JSTOR.
Moore-Sloan, S. “Transcending the politics of respectability in the progressive era: Fannie Barrier Williams, Intersectionality, and the Power of the Pen.” North Carolina, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 2020, p. 64.
“The New Orleans’ Exposition. Washington’s Adonis and New Orleans Beauty–Register Bruce Complimented.” Washington Bee, 31 Jan. 1885, p. 2. Readex: America’s Historical Newspapers.
Perkins, Linda Marie. Black Feminism and Race Uplift. Cambridge: Radcliffe College, 1981.
Pfeffer, Miki. Southern Ladies and Suffragists. Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 2014, pp. 7-8, 80-81.
Pfeffer, Miki. “Mr. Chairman and FELLOW AMERICAN CITIZENS: African American Agency at the World’s Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition in New Orleans, 1884-1885 Louisiana History.” The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association, vol. 51, no. 4, 2010, pp. 442-462. Published by: Louisiana Historical Association. Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/25800987.
Norrils, V. R. “If it is
going to get done, we will have to do it ourselves: African American Women Activists, 1830-1896.” The University of Toledo, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, 2014.
Staten, Candace. “Fannie Barrier Williams.” BlackPast.org. Times Democrat, January 1, 1885.
Walker, Adria R. “Her Story is Largely Lost, but this Brockport Suffragette Fought for Black Civil Rights.” Rochester Democrat and Chronicle, 2 March 2022, pp. 1-16.
Western N.Y. Suffragists: Winning the Vote. “Fannie Barrier Williams.” https://rrlc.org/rrlc.org/winningthevote/biographies/fannie-barrier-williams/.
Williams, Fannie Barrier. The New Woman of Color, edited by Mary Jo Deegan. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, 2002, pp. 6, 23, 103.
Williams, Fannie Barrier. “AZQuotes.com.” Wind and Fly LTD, 2023. 15 April 2023. https://www.azquotes.com/author/73170-Fannie_Barrier_Williams.
Williams, Fannie Barrier. “Colored Women Today.” https://www.accessible-archives.com/2019/08/colored-woman-today-notable-types-1897/.